Florence is 50 meters above sea level on the banks of the River Arno. The city lies in a valley which is surrounded by the first foothills of the Chianti hills in the south and the Fiesole hills to the north. These hills are beautiful to behold. They are predominantly green and occasionally you see a white patch. There are a few houses. Florence is a city of art and culture and is an annual destination for many tourists.-b- Florence was originally a Roman city and was then called "Florentia". In Roman times the city was already very important, but the city was really against the reign of the Carolingians. The fortunes of the Carolingian era begins in 1115 and keeps expanding to other Tuscan cities. In 1406 will be Pisa taken. At that moment, only Siena and Lucca under Florentine rule. Florence was at that time a republic in 1434 but was a “Signoria” (a government) under the rule of the Medici family. In 1530 Charles V decided to introduce the title of Duke of Florence, a title which was changed in 1569 to Grand Duke of Tuscany after the Republic of Siena had fallen in 1555.
Under this Signoria the town was able to get great masterpieces by leading artists such as Brunelleschi, Donatello, Botticelli, and Masaccio. Thus, Florence was the most important European center of Renaissance culture. When the Medici family had no successors and the last family member was deceased, came to power in the hands of Lorenas. This coup took place in 1737. This family ruled Florence until 1859, apart from the period 1800-1815 in which Napoleon was ruler. In 1859 Duke Leopold II was expelled and Tuscany became part of the Kingdom of Italy. Florence was even the capital of Italy, or in the period 1865 to 1870.
The urban structure of the city consisted of a historical center which was marked by roads from Roman times. The city grew around the center back. The city was enclosed by stone walls which were built in the 12th and 14th centuries. In the second half of the 19th century began for the first time outside the city walls. This was partly due to the construction of a new railway station. In addition, the city was economically more important and consequently took the stable population increases dramatically. Today stretches from Florence to Prato in the Northeast to Siena in the south.
It is impossible to number all the major monuments and works of art to call. Therefore we will limit the list to the main attractions. Piazza del Duomo and Piazza della Signoria draw the attention of all tourists. Piazza del Duomo is the site of the cathedral, the campanile and baptiserium. You will find the Duomo of Florence , Santa Maria del Fiore with the dome Brunellesschi. You have to really look inside. The enormous dome was built in the 14th century with its many domes of Rome to compete. This dome is still the largest dome in the world. The Santa Maria del Fiori has a span width of 43 meters, 40 meters of the Pantheon in Rome. Other impressive domes are the St. Peter's in London and the Capitol in Washington. These domes are respectively 33 and 29 meters but “small”.
Center of the old town is the beautiful Piazza della Signoria, where on the east side of the Palazzo Vecchio (Town Hall) from 1299 stands. This palace was built between 1298 and 1314 the Signoria built in the 16th century, built on the back. Left of the entrance is a copy of Michelangelo's David. On the beautiful courtyard (rebuilt in 1454) a copy (the original is on the first floor) of Verrocchio's charmed Knaap with fish. On the second floor, the Salone dei Cinquecento (1495) with Michelangelo's sculpture group "Victory of Virtue on the slander"(cca 1520).
Loggia in the diagonally opposite the Palazzo Vecchio, the Loggia dei Lanzi , a Gothic structure with three open arches, under Cosimo I and was waiting for his lance servants. Before, it was used for the people to speak. Late 14th century as a ceremonial place and until the 18th century evolved into sculpture. Famous is the Perseus of Cellini, the victory of the noble rule of the Medici's on the republican form suggests and "The spoil of the Sabines" by Giovanni Bologna (1583). Between the Palazzo Vecchio and the Loggia dei Lanzi extends to the Arno from the Uffizi Gallery, originally built by Vasari as Chancellor (1560-1574), now the Galleria degli Uffizi (in short “Uffizi” called). It is one of the richest museums in the world and an almost complete overview of the Florentine schools of painting, except that it also possesses important works by Northern Italian (especially Venetian) painters, as well as Dutch and German.