Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, near the Sicilian city of Messina and Catania. Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and is currently 3,329 meters high, although this height varies due to the eruptions of Mount Etna.Mount Etna is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps.-b-
Etna covers an area of 1,190 km 2 with a radius of 140 km. Etna makes this by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy. Mount Etna is about 2.5 times as high as Mount Vesuvius, with a height of 1281 meters the second largest volcano in Italy.
Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is almost constantly active. The fertile volcanic soils of Mount Etna, is the reason that on the volcano slopes, many agricultural practices. Vineyards and orchards are frequently present on the lower parts of the slopes of Mount Etna volcano. As recently as Mount Etna is active and so many people living near the volcano, Mount Etna by the United Nations as one of the "Volcanoes of the decade," meaning that the danger for the residents of Etna volcano forms a close eye is kept. It is hoped that the number of victims in the event of an eruption as much as possible limit.
Geologic history of Mount Etna
The volcanic activity that led to the formation of Mount Etna began about 500,000 years ago, with eruptions on the seabed for the old coastline of Sicily. About 300,000 years ago, an area southwest of the current volcanic volcano become active until the volcanic activity was 170,000 years ago moved to the location of the current volcano. Characteristic of stratovolcanoes is that they are constructed from layers of lava, alternating with layers of pyroclastic material (ash and stones). The stratovolcano Mount Etna is also caused by the alternation of explosive volcanic eruptions in the outflow of lava.
From about 35,000 to 15,000 years ago, some very Etna explosive eruptions with large pyroclastic flows much ash on the volcano slopes deposed. The volcanic ash in these eruptions became vacant until Rome (800 km north of Mount Etna) found.
Approximately 7000-8000 years ago, slipped along the east side of the slope of the Etna volcano road, similar to the landslide that occurred in the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980. The slip has a big hole left in the form of a valley (Valle del Bove) is still well recognizable. Estimated slid about 25 km 3 rock from the volcano into the sea, where a huge tsunami which came towards the eastern Mediterranean displaced. On this basis, researchers can calculate the tidal waves created by the slide, had a height of 50 meters and a maximum speed of 725 km / hour. This is almost double the wave height of the devastating December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. The probability that a new landslide on Mount Etna a similar tragedy will bring, according to researchers is low. The eastern part of Etna is however slowly changing. A landslide that now would cause a tsunami similar to the tsunami about 7500 years ago, would now have unprecedented consequences. The coastal zone of the Mediterranean is now very densely populated.
In the past there have been several landslides along the steep slopes of the Valle del Bove. The eruptive history of Mount Etna is in an easily accessible way to read well to the exposed rock layers in the Valle del Bove. About 2000 years ago, the summit of Mount Etna for the last collapsed, so called Piano Caldera arose. This caldera is almost completely filled with lava from later eruptions of Mount Etna, but is still seen as a deviation in the slope of the mountain near the base of contemporary top krater.
Historical eruptions of Mount Etna
Mount Etna is erupting in the past has come. Eruptions of Mount Etna can be divided to where they are located. Some eruptions occur at the top of the volcano where currently there are four craters, called Northeast Crater, Voragine, Bocca Nuova and Southeast Crater. Volcanic eruptions at the summit of Mount Etna can be very explosive and spectacular manner, but are rarely a threat to people living near the volcano. Other eruptions occur at the volcano slope, where more than 400 craters located. These craters range in size from small to large holes in the ground craters hundreds of meters across. Volcanic eruptions that occur on the slopes of Mount Etna, may take place until a height of several hundred meters above sea level near populated areas. Many villages and small towns are located near or on old craters of Mount Etna eruptions of the volcano slope which could be dangerous to local residents. Since the year 1600, have at least 60 eruptions occurred on the volcano slopes and are much more eruptions at the summit of the volcano have been. Almost half of these eruptions have occurred since the beginning of the 20 e century. Since the year 2000 have so far taken place at Etna eruptions 5 slope, namely in 2001, 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2007 and 2008.
In the year 122 BC was a large explosive gradient eruptions from the craters at the summit of the volcano. This eruption caused heavy ash rains in the southeast, including in the village of Catania, where many roofs collapsed. For the people to help rebuild the village as compensation for the inconvenience that this outburst brought with it, the Roman government decided that the people of Catania last ten years have to pay no tax.
Recent eruptions of Mount Etna
In 1928, a major lava flow until the final destruction of a populated area near Mount Etna since the eruption of 1669. The eruption began on November 2 high on the northeast slope of Mount Etna. Later, new craters opened on the lower slopes of the volcano. The third and most powerful of these craters opened on November 4 at an unusually low altitude of 1200 meters above sea level. Mascali The village, located downhill of this break was, was a period of 2 days with razed. The lava flow that swept the village, damaging nearly every building. Only a church and several surrounding buildings in the northern part of the village remained intact. During the last days of the eruption, lava flow destroyed the railway station Mascali. This event was Benito Mussolini's fascist regime for propaganda purposes. The evacuation, aid and re-construction were brought as a model in which fascism stood for. Mascali was rebuilt at another location. The church survived the lava, until today the symbol of the Italian fascists. Beginning in November 2008 that commemorated the village Mascali village 80 years ago by a volcanic eruption destroyed.
Other major eruptions of Etna in the 20 e century took place in 1949, 1971, 1981, 1983 and 1991-1993. In 1971, the Etna Observatory (built late 19 e century) destroyed, along with the cable car and were several small villages on the eastern slope of Mount Etna seriously threatened. In March 1981 Randazzo escaped the village on the northwestern slope of Mount Etna just the devastation of an unusually fast moving lava flow. When the eruptions of 1991 to 1993 the village was threatened by lava flows Zafferana, but the lava flows were successfully guided around the village. The village was retained, but building a few hundred meters beyond the edge of the city was completely destroyed. Initially they tried the lava flows around the village to lead by creating barriers of earth perpendicular to the direction of the lava flow. It was hoped that the eruption would stop before the excavated valleys behind the barriers were completely filled with lava. But the eruption continued and the lava went through the barriers and went directly to the village Zafferana off. When it was decided to use explosives near the lava flow, lava channel to be very efficient (so the lava over a distance of 7 km moved without losing heat or liquidity) to disrupt. The most powerful explosion on May 23, 1992 destroyed the lava channel and forced the lava in a new, artificial lava channel Zafferana far away. Shortly after using explosives, slowed the rate of Etna lava emissions. During the remainder of the outbreak which lasted until March 30, 1993, the lava flow was not near the village.
The next 6 years (1995-2001) were the four craters on the summit of Mount Etna unusually active. July 2001 saw the first volcanic eruption along a slope in place since the eruption of 1991-1993. The eruption involving seven craters in the volcano slopes were active, attracted a lot of media attention. Because this outbreak occurred in the middle of the tourist season and many journalists and reporters were already present in Italy for the Genoa G8 received much media attention this outburst. Moreover, the area where the eruption took place readily accessible, because it took place in one of the tourist area of Mount Etna. Part of the "Etna Sud” tourist area, including the arrival station of the Etna cable car, experienced substantial damage from the eruption. Yet this explosion but of moderate strength, compared to other eruptions of Mount Etna.
In 2002 to 2003 found a much larger eruption of Mount Etna, which put a huge ash column was sprayed into the air. This ash column could be seen from space and fell to ashes in Libya, 600 km south of Mount Etna on the Mediterranean. The seismic activity that accompanied this eruption, caused slipping of the eastern slope of the volcano by about 2 meters. Many houses on the slopes of the volcano suffered serious damage from these minor earthquakes, mainly in the form of cracks. This outbreak also led to the complete destruction of the tourist station Piano The Lagoon, on the northeast slope of the volcano. Footage of the blast was used for the movie "Star Wars Episode III: revange of the Sith”, and landscape of the planet Mustafar.
The relatively quiet eruptions that occurred on the southeast slope of Mount Etna between September 2004 and March 2005 were followed by intense bursts in the southeast crater in July to December 2006. On March 29, April 11, April 29, May 7, 2007, the southeast crater eruption, with lava fountains appeared. Mid August 2007 Mount Etna began to emit ash and there were explosions from the southeast crater.
On September 4, 2007, Etna erupted at 8:00 pm with lots of violence. Lava was 400 meters into the air injected along with much ash that came down in the villages then downhill. This eruption of the southeast crater was far into the interior of Sicily seen and held the following morning between 5 and 7 hours beware. At Catania-Fontanarossa Airport were canceled all flights as a precaution. A similar eruption occurred in 1923 on the night of November 24, 2007, which lasted six hours and caused ash rains north of the volcano. Again, the source of the southeast crater activity. After several months of relatively little volcanic activity of the southeast crater, found in the late afternoon of May 10, 2008 lava fountain again a place on Mount Etna. Due to bad weather it was not possible a lot of volcanic activity can be observed. Some lava flows moved to the eastern slope of the volcano away, and ended in the Valle del Bove. This fountain eruption lasted about four hours and ended in the evening of May 10, 2008.
A new eruption occurred the morning of May 13, 2008 top craters east of Mount Etna. This eruption was accompanied by more than 200 earthquakes and deformation of the summit of Mount Etna. In the afternoon the same day, opened a new fissure in the volcano eruption, at an altitude of about 2800 meters above sea level. Also showed some of the craters eruptions of Stromboli-type, with lava in the direction of Valle del Bove flowed. During the next 24 hours, moved the lava is about 6 km to the east before the lava flow rate and lost about 3 km from the nearest village Milo came to rest. Etna began more ash clouds to emit between 16 and 18 May, while the emission of lava slowly declined. In late May and first week of June remained at a low level active volcano, where lava flows cannot exceed a few hundred meters from the craters to standstill. On June 8 took the strength of the volcanic eruptions of the Stromboli-type and rate of lava emission quite far. The following week the lava flows reached distances of up to 5 km from the craters. In June and July were the eruptions continue, and there was mild eruptions of Stromboli-type from two craters at a height of about 2800 meters above sea level. The lava flows reached a distance of 5 km from the craters and ended up in the Valle del Bove. Mid July arose several loud explosions were heard well in several villages around the volcano. Late July, the explosive activity of Etna again, but the lava emissions remained constant at a fairly low speed. The lava flows were not more than 1 km from the crater.
On November 13, 2008, six months after the start of the eruption, lava flowed from the volcano is still a relatively slow speed. The eruption of Etna in 2008 was the longest of the four slope bursts of 3 e millennium. Previous eruptions in 2001, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, respectively, lasted 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months.
On January 12, 2011 it has been recorded a slight increase in volcanic activities that reached its peak by 7 a.m. local time. At around 9.30 p.m. local time, Mount Etna start a small eruption sending the lava down the mountain towards to Valle del Bove. The eruption of Etna lasted only about an hour and the lava flow remained visible as of 13 January 2011 at morning, lighting up the sky but posing no threat to the towns and cities near the volcano.